A REVIEW ON SOIL CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN NEPAL
Land degradation and soil erosion are the major problem in the world. The world loses 24 billion tons of fertile land and dry land degradation reduces National domestic product in developing countries by up to eight percent per year which indicates the vulnerable threat to millions of people in the world. About 87 tonnes of topsoil per hectare per year eroded in Nepal. The fragile geology, farming practices, increasing population etc are the reason which exceeding erosion in Nepal. Soil conservation practices include erosion control and fertility maintenance as well. Agro-forestry system using Pectona grandis, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo etc play an important role in soil conservation. Cowpea, Velvet bean, sesbania, blackgram etc as a cover crop intercept the splash effect of raindrops, improve infiltration of soil and also to reduce deleterious effects of global warming. Conservation tillage was found effective against both soil and wind erosion. Mulching, contour farming and terracing are also found effective in the hilly mountaineous region. It was also found effective in Nepalese condition as well. In this paper bird’s eye view on soil erosion issue, reason and major conservation practices in Nepal and world as well.
Soil erosion, Nepalese context, Conservation practices.