PESTICIDES IMPORT, USE, CONSUMPTION AND RESIDUE STATUS AMONG FOOD CROPS IN NEPAL: A REVIEW
Dharmendra Kalauni and Arati Joshi
Insubstantial options for chemical pest management compelled farmers to use synthetic pesticides against crop insect pests that created vicious circle of increasing high-dose-pesticides applications in agriculture sector. The study was carried out to understand prevailing situation of pesticides uses and their state regulation status. Secondary data were obtained from Plant Protection Division, Plant Management and Registration Division, and FAOSTAT for drawing inferences and trend analysis. Chemical pest management commenced from using Paris green, Gamaxone, Nicotine sulphate and Chlorinated hydrocarbons in 1950s to 117 chemically defined pesticides including bio-pesticides and bio-rational compounds of 2186 formulations from 1960s to 2018 has made obvious changes in pest management scenario in the country. Per hectare pesticide consumption in Nepal is 396.0 gram (a.i.) while in commercial vegetable sector its consumption is as high as 1,600 gram a.i. per hectare. Option dearth but farmers’ reliability only in chemical applications in pest management in crop fields has resulted in repercussion of vicious circle of compelled higher dose pesticide applications in crops. Obvious result is scores of multitudes of pesticides crowded in market in the country. Above all, problems of pesticide residues in food grains and green vegetables are emerging.
Synthetic pesticide, Insecticide, Usage, Crop-residue